INCORPORATION OF HOME AUTOMATION HOUSING
The home automation systems can be introduced both in existing housing, as in the newly built housing, being in the latter case obviously cheaper introduction. The current range of products and home automation services is attractive and fits into any home or building topology (private homes, offices, hotels, hospitals, schools, universities, etc.), whether existing or new construction.
In the case of new housing or deep rehabilitation, placement of a recommended wiring specific to forward the necessary information between the different elements of the system. The current legislation requires all new buildings to have minimum telecommunications facilities, which can be easily expanded to accommodate automation systems that allow the automation functions in the home. In the case of existing homes, the installation requirements are minimal, since it is possible to exploit the power grid housing or use wireless technologies as a means of transmission. In any case, mechanisms are currently simple use and its cost has been reduced significantly in recent years.
Home automation system within the housing, we distinguish the following elements: the residential gateway; the centralized control system; and a series of sensors, switches, actuators, personal computers, appliances and electronics distributed in different areas of the house.
The residential gateways are responsible for adapting protocols and data streams Internet to the internal network control data and housing, as well as allowing multiple computers or devices to share information, peripherals and Internet access only. The residential gateway will also act as a firewall, preventing intruders from accessing the internal network of the house. The gateway and the remote will not only housing, but also entertainment, e – commerce, or caring for people with disabilities, among others. Of all the technologies of Internet access currently available, they are especially interesting the broadband (ADSL, cable, LMDS, satellite, PLC or GPRS) allow, in addition to surf the Internet at high speed and access other multimedia services, be permanently connected. This is very important for applications such as telemetry and remote, thus avoiding the slow process of marking and establishment of conventional technologies.
The central control system, sometimes integrated into the gateway itself, is an electronic brain responsible for managing and controlling every element of the home automation network. This device can be managed by the user through an intuitive browser, accessible via a touch screen, a remote control or via mobile phone or Internet. That is, the user can remotely control each of the systems installed in the housing and receive any incident occurring in them, acting accordingly.
Within the home network, it has to distinguish between the data network and control. The data network residential is used for the exchange of information (audio, video and data) between devices in the home, ensuring interoperability. This network will consist of several technologies operating simultaneously according to the devices to be connected, can be used as physical environment: new wiring (Ethernet, RS-232 or USB), the telephone network (Humana), the (Home Plug) power grid, or radio (Bluetooth, Homer or IEEE-802.11). On the other hand, the control network, lower bandwidth, will only be used for automation and control housing. Several protocols standard distributed control (Lon Works / Lon Talk, X-10, Konner, EHS, EIB, etc.), most of which support any physical means are taken. The reason why the control network does not use TCP / IP is that this protocol was designed to transfer large amounts of information, mainly unreliable and unsafe distant networks, so you need several bytes of control for information transfer. Conversely, they are minimizing the protocols mentioned control fields; as, for example, for switching a light, simply a coded order a couple of bytes.
BENEFITS OF HOME AUTOMATION
The installation of a home automation provides a host of benefits and advantages unattainable by traditional housing. The main reasons for installing an intelligent housing system would, by: safety, comfort, energy saving and leisure. But certainly these four reasons mentioned are reduced to one, by increasing the quality of life. Next, we study the main applications of home automation, presenting examples of products or devices that, in our day, get the satisfaction of the needs of users to an increasingly competitive price.
Safety is the application that is helping to introduce more automation systems in the home. Obviously, the increase in home security not only affects the protection of most of our private property, but also in our own personal protection.
The latest innovations in terms of intrusion control feature wireless security alarms that are installed in minutes, which work even if the thief has cut the telephone line. To prevent outside observers note that the house is unoccupied for long periods of time, the system memorizes the sequence of common shares in the housing and is able to simulate the presence of people (turn off and on lights, open and close blinds, etc. .). The access control system is also particularly interesting to not have to leave the keys to housekeeping or any repairer, as the housing can be opened remotely from the mobile by the owner. The latest development in this field, are the systems that control the input by reading the fingerprint, allowing the passage of a specific day at a specific hour and inform us of the time that has been agreed in our home.
The presence of detectors and cameras distributed at key points of the building permit also warn the user of possible disasters (fire, water leaks, gas leaks, power outages, etc.), even if you are away from home; but more importantly, they allow also generate an action, like cutting a stopcock to stop water leakage reducing its severity. The cameras will enable also monitor children or your baby while sleeping from anywhere.
On the other hand, among the elderly and groups with some kind of physical disability becoming more prevalent is the use of a medical alarm, a system to be connected at all times with medical personnel or our mobile phone.
The more developed countries, due to increased life expectancy, are suffering a significant increase in the elderly. This group, along with people with disabilities, will rule the entire home automation from a single point of control, quickly performing tasks such as: regulating the temperature of the heating or air conditioning, control the opening and closing curtains and blinds, control the overall off or on all the lights of the house or the garden irrigation system, video intercom integrate with television lounge, etc.). Furthermore, incorporating sensors and actuators throughout the house, you can enjoy applications such as automation off or on at each point of light.
In improving home comfort are especially important smart appliances. The introduction of digital technology as common appliances such as washing machines, dishwashers, refrigerators, microwave ovens, vacuum cleaners, etc., has led to a new generation of devices that combine the traditional functions of each processing systems, automation and additional control. For example, the new interactive refrigerators, typically have a digital display located on the front of it, with which communication with the user, which can be done: select the specific temperature at which they want to keep food, view a summary of food available and their expiration date without opening the door, remind you of important appointments, etc. Access to all these functions can also be performed via the Internet or mobile phone. The other appliances incorporate advances in this style and, right now, the main drawback of all is its high price, so subtract still some time before entering massively in our homes.
The latest development in this field are intelligent robots. With its ability to recognize obstacles through ultrasound and a camera capable of rotating 180 built, the robot controls and monitors the house without damaging furniture or walls; may, among other things, take pictures when it detects abnormal situations and send them to the mobile owner, or warn of intruders, which detected by a facial recognition software.
The growing ecological awareness are becoming citizens and public administrations will facilitate the introduction of home automation solutions to increase energy savings. Obviously, this optimization of consumption of scarce natural resources such as energy and water, in addition to result in a better environment for all, considerable cost savings for users of housing, of about 25%.
Intelligent systems of centralized housing control allow you to manage the heating and air conditioning by zones optimizing energy consumption as a function of temperature by charge-discharge regulation accumulators probes external and internal temperature, activation of appliances in hours of nightly rate, disconnection of non-priority before reaching the contracted power, regulation of light intensity depending on the level of ambient, deactivation of lighting or closing taps light if presence is not detected within a certain time lines, etc.
The latest appliances also incorporate several technological advances that improve the environmental degradation suffered. For example, current dishwasher high-end feature a washing function at half load to optimize water consumption, have a relatively low levels of noise, and greatly reduce the consumption of water, electricity and soap without affecting the effectiveness of washed. The most advanced dishwasher are even able to automatically optimize each wash and make the most efficient programs in terms of dirt or charge level. The improvements made by the other appliances are similar to those of the dishwasher and ovens cook faster traditionally, refrigerators increasingly using ecological refrigerants.
New technologies have changed the lifestyle of many people, allowing people to enjoy more and more fully of their leisure time. The incorporation of advanced telecommunications systems in housing have already made a reality applications such as telecommuting, distance learning, e-banking, e-commerce, etc. This has allowed many people, all these activities from your own home; that is, more comfortably, in more flexible schedules without wasting time and money on commuting happy.
On the other hand, young people have drastically changed the way we communicate and have fun, increasing the time spent on leisure activities within the home, such as watching television, listening to music, playing video games or surfing the Internet. This group will especially benefit from fast and secure Internet access that requires home automation, accessing new forms of entertainment, such as video gaming network, video on demand, videoconferencing, radio channels around the world, etc. . Not forgetting, new electronic devices that allow you to enjoy home theater, radio or digital television, etc.